The "City of the Great Lowlands" arose from a donation of land grants given to the Guana Indians, considered civilized by the Portuguese and known for their skills as boatmen and fishermen, in 1832 by the imperial government. The city, whose name roughly translates into English as "Great Lowlands of the Guana", was a mandatory stop along the way for the herds of cattle that came from Upper Rio Rosario (now Rosario West ) that were en route to Cuiabá.
However, according to traditional history, its foundation is closely linked to the military camp built during the war with Paraguay, supposedly near the current center of town - Camp Couto Magalhães. However, this military camp, which gave support to the state capital during the war, which was established May 15, 1867, by general, lawyer, and diamond mining town founder, José Vieira Couto de Magalhães, was located on the left shore of the Cuiabá River, or on the other side of the river from the city of Cuiabá, near the mouth of the Rio Coxipó, the northern capital.
Lowland Grande and Cuiabá have a tropical hot and humid climate. The temperature range varies from 17 °C to 32 °C in winter, in recent times has been very strict temperature lowered to 10 °C in July with windchill 4.9 °C because atypical for residents who are accustomed to high temperatures, but it is very dry this time of year in Mato Grosso, there are many fires that are harmful to health and this causes the relative humidity to drop to 13%. The summer is very hot with temperatures ranging from 23 C to 40 °C; it is also the season with more rain with changes from one moment to another, and this causes the temperature to drop a little, on a rainy day the temperature is no more than 22 °C. Lowland Grande and Cuiabá have hot nights with temperatures that can reach 32 °C, and drop to around 24 °C.
In 1977, the state was split into two halves, with Mato Grosso do Sul being organized as a new state. The Bororo Indians live in the Mato Grosso area. As late as 1880, soldiers patrolled lands on the outskirts of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso's capital and largest city, to protect settlers from Bororo raids.
By the end of the 19th century, although severely reduced by disease and by warfare with explorers, slave traders, prospectors, settlers, and other indigenous groups, as many as five to ten thousand Bororo continued to occupy central and eastern Mato Grosso, as well as western Goiás. The southwestern part of this state was ceded by Brazil to Bolivia in exchange for Acre, according to the Treaty of Petrópolis in 1903.
This historically remote area attracted expeditions of exploration in the early 20th century that sought to find lost civilizations. A notable example were efforts by British Captain Percy Fawcett. In addition, theorists of Hollow Earth speculated that this region had sites of access to the interior of the earth and its settlements.
The Gruta da Lagoa Azul State Park (Portuguese: Parque Estadual Gruta da Lagoa Azul) is a state park in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Its primary attraction is a limestone cave with a pool of blue water and unusual cave formations. These have suffered from vandalism, causing the cave to be closed until measures to protect it could be implemented. The Gruta da Lagoa Azul State Park is in the municipality of Nobres, Mato Grosso. It has an area of 12,513 hectares (30,920 acres). The blue lagoon cave holds a pool of blue water formed from underground water of the Saloba River. The main entrance is filled in part by the water. The hall contains columns over 5 metres (16 ft) in size and 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) in diameter. There may be archaeological remains in the cave. The park has several other limestone caves. It is covered with deciduous forests, and is home to howler monkeys, tapirs, jaguars and macaws.
The Central-West Region of Brazil (Portuguese: Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil) is composed of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul; along with Distrito Federal (Federal District), where Brazil's national capital, Brasília, is situated. This Region is right in the heart of Brazil, representing 18.86% of the national territory.
With the move of the country's federal capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília in the 1960s, the construction of roads and railways to the interior of the country made access to the region easier, speeding up population growth and contributing significantly to the region's development.
Mato Grosso do Sul was created in 1979, materializing the decision of the government to divide the then called state of Mato Grosso in two states to facilitate to the administration and the development of the region.
Today, Center-West is attracting much investment for agriculture, livestock, and industries, and people from Southeast and Southern Brazil.
Brasília International Airport, Marechal Rondon International Airport, Campo Grande International Airport and Santa Genoveva Airport connects the Center-West region with many Brazilian cities and also operates some international flights.
The Center-West is home to the University of Brasília, University Center of Brasília, Federal University of Goiás, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul and Federal University of Mato Grosso.
The Center-West region is the least populated from Brazil.
The most populous state of the region, Goiás presents a landscape of plateaus and chapadões. In the height of the drought, from June to September, the lack of rain makes the level of the River Araguaia go down and brings up almost 2 km of beaches.
At the Emas National Park in the municipality of Chapadão do Céu, it is possible to observe the typical fauna and the flora from the region. At the Chapada dos Veadeiros the attractions are the canyons, valleys, rapids and waterfalls. Other attractions are the historical city of Goiás (or Old Goiás), at 132 km from Goiânia, established in the beginning of the 18th century, and Caldas Novas, known for its hot springs.
Located in the State of Goiás in a region called Planalto Central, the Federal District is divided in 31 administrative regions. Brasília - a place where the three branches of the Federal Government are located - is the main attraction of this dry area and climate with only two seasons. The rainy season is from October to March.
During the dry season, the humidity can reach critical levels, mainly in the peak hours of the hottest days. The artificial lake of Paranoá, with almost 40 km² and 500 million m³ of water, was built exactly to minimize the severe climatic conditions of the winter. The region also attracts mystics and in its surroundings you find many temples of different religions and sectarian groups.
Brazil: Varzea Grande