Mauá (Portuguese pronunciation: [maˈwa]) is a municipality in the state of São Paulo, in Brazil. Is part of the metropolitan region of São Paulo. The population as of 2006 is 413,943 inhabitants (11th largest city in population number of the state), the density is 6,645.4 per square kilometre (17,212/sq mi) and the area is 62.6 square kilometres (24.2 sq mi). The density is in fact bigger, since one third of the city is occupied by industries and 10% is countryside or forest. Its name comes from the Tupi language and means the one that is high. As it's a municipality, it can also be translated as high city. However, back when the city was a small village, its name was Pilar, then the name was changed in 1934 into Mauá as a homage to Visconde de Mauá, entrepreneur which built the Santos–Jundiaí railway that passes through the city.
Mauá has the 23rd largest GDP of São Paulo state.
Is the birthplace of Brazilian tableware industry.
The city has a special characteristic hydrographic: not be crossed by any water course from another city, since, due to the high altitude, all streams that cross the territory of Mauá has their sources inside the city limits.
In the city is located the source of Tamanduateí River, the third largest affluent of the Tietê River in Greater São Paulo, the Oratório river and the Pinheirinho and Guaió rivers. The most important waterways in the urban area are the Taboão Stream, the Corumbé Stream and the Capitão João Stream (which flows under the XXII de Novembro square, in the downtown). Due to the disordered occupation of the floodplains, many places that before acted as absorbers of excessive rain water were grounded and the city has several points at high risk of flooding. The situation was eased with the construction of four reservoirs between the years 1998 and 2002. However, due to lack of maintenance, excessive garbage and siltation, the reservoirs can not effectively avoid the flooding risk. Besides the disordered occupation, lack of sewerage and waste treatment makes the urban waterways completely polluted.
São Paulo is one of 27 states of Brazil, located southwest of the Southeast Region. The state area is 248,222.362 km2 (95,839.190 sq mi), most of the north of the Tropic of Capricorn, and the 12th unit of the Brazilian federation in area and the second in the Southeast region, behind only Minas Gerais. The state has a relatively high relief, having 85 percent of its surface between three hundred and nine hundred meters above sea level, 8 percent below three hundred meters and 7 percent over nine hundred meters.
The distance between its north and south end points is 611 km (380 mi), and 923 km (574 mi) between the east-west extremes. The state time zone follows the Brasilia time, which is three hours late in relation to the Greenwich Meridian. It is limited to the states of Minas Gerais to the north and northeast, the Paraná to the south, Rio de Janeiro to the east, Mato Grosso do Sul to the west, and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast.
The coastline consists of plains below 300 metres (980 ft), that border the Serra do Mar. Located in the Serra da Mantiqueira, Mine Stone, with 2,798 metres (9,180 ft) above sea level, is the highest point the state territory and the fifth in the country.
São Paulo has its territory divided into 21 watersheds, inserted in three river basin districts, the largest of which is the Paraná, which covers much of the state territory. Noteworthy is the Rio Grande, which born in Minas Gerais and join with Paranaiba to form the Parana River, which separates São Paulo from Mato Grosso do Sul.
Two major rivers Paulistas tributaries of the left bank of the Paraná River are the Paranapanema, which is 930 km (580 mi) long and a natural divider between São Paulo and Paraná in most of its course, and the Tiete River, which has a length of 1,136 km (706 mi) and runs through the state territory from southeast to northwest, from its source in Salesópolis, to its mouth in the city of Itapura.
In 2009 the service sector was the largest component of GDP at 69%, followed by the industrial sector at 31%. Agriculture represents 2% of GDP. The state produces 34% of Brazilian goods and services. São Paulo (state) exports: vehicles 17%, airplanes and helicopters 12%, food industry 10%, sugar and alcohol fuel 8%, orange juice 5%, telecommunications 4% (2002).
São Paulo state is responsible for approximately a third of Brazilian GDP. The state's GDP (PPP) consists of 1,003 trillion dollars, making it also the biggest economy of South America and one of the biggest economies in Latin America, second after Mexico. Its economy is based on machinery, the automobile and aviation industries, services, financial companies, commerce, textiles, orange growing, sugar cane and coffee bean production.
São Paulo, one of the largest economic poles in Latin/South America, has a diversified economy. Some of the largest industries are metal-mechanics, sugar cane, textile and car and aviation manufacturing. Service and financial sectors, as well as the cultivation of oranges, cane sugar and coffee form the basis of an economy which accounts for 34% of Brazil's GDP (equivalent to $727.053 billion).
The towns of Campinas, Ribeirão Preto, Bauru, São José do Rio Preto, Piracicaba, Jaú, Marilia, Botucatu, Assis, and Ourinhos are important university, engineering, agricultural, zootechnique, technology, or health sciences centers. The Instituto Butantan in São Paulo is a herpetology serpentary science center that collects snakes and other poisonous animals, as it produces venom antidotes. The Instituto Pasteur produces medical vaccines. The state is also at the vanguard of ethanol production, soybeans, aircraft construction in São José dos Campos, and its rivers have been important in generating electricity through its hydroelectric plants.
The highway system of São Paulo is the largest state system of the Brazilian Highway System, surpassing the 35,000 km (22,000 mi). It is an interconnected network, divided into three levels: municipal (12,000 km (7,500 mi)); state (22,000 km (14,000 mi)); and federal (1,050 km (650 mi)). More than 90% of São Paulo population is about 5 km (3.1 mi) from a paved road.
São Paulo has the largest number of highways of Latin America and, according to a survey by the Confederação Nacional do Transporte (National Transport Confederation), the road system of the state is the best in Brazil, with 59.4% of its roads classified as "excellent". The survey also found that of the 10 best Brazilian highways, nine are in São Paulo.
The São Paulo highway system, however, is heavily criticized for the high cost imposed on its users. The state of São Paulo concentrates more than half of the toll roads in Brazil and a new toll plaza is created every 40 days average. According to a report of the Folha de S. Paulo, the cost of tolls to travel the coastal path of 4,500 km (2,800 mi) of the federal highway BR-101, which connect Rio Grande do Norte to Rio Grande do Sul, is cheaper than to go through the 313 km (194 mi) of highways separating the municipalities of São Paulo and Ribeirão Preto. The prices charged by private concessionaires who run the system are frequent targets of complaints from drivers.